The Spread

When antibiotic resistance develops anywhere, it is a threat to people everywhere. That’s the point so nicely illustrated in the graphic below. Using the antibiotic resistance conferring NDM-1 gene as an example, it shows its spread from India (ND = New Delhi) to over 80 countries over a 10-year period.

Genes confer traits in bacteria in much the same way they do in us. For instance, various genes confer in us traits such as height, hair color, and risk for disease. Similarly, in bacteria, genes confer traits for survival such as an increased resistance to antibiotics, increased virulence, and bugs that are more contagious. In fact, those are the very traits found in a deadly new strain of pneumonia in China that scientists say “is likely just a matter of time” before it too escapes its country of origin.

 

Borders 3

 

Another antibiotic resistant gene of interest is MCR-1, which we profiled last year. Like NDM-1, it’s also on the move. A report last month by the Center for Disease Research and Policy at the University of Minnesota noted that in China, “MCR-1-harboring bacteria, mainly E. coli, were detected in 71% of water samples, 51% of farm animal fecal samples, 36% of food products, and 28% of human subjects.”

The question, then, is what can we do to protect ourselves. One of the best reports ever done on antibiotic resistance remains the 2013 Frontline piece, Hunting the Nightmare Bacteria. One of its segments, Eight Ways to Protect Yourselves From Superbugs, offered some good news: “Everyone may be at risk, but the chances of catching a drug-resistant bug outside of the hospital are small for most. For the average healthy person walking down the street? Those organisms are not much of a threat.”

However, that was before the detection and spread of the MCR-1 gene, and the emergence of the new and deadly strain of pneumonia mentioned above which NPR reported on here. And so the preventive measures that Frontline offers – e.g., proper hand washing with soap and water, getting the annual flu shot, and taking antibiotics only if you absolutely have to – would seem to be even more important now than before.

 

 

 

 

 

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